## Linux 101: How to copy files and directories from the command line

Jack Wallen continues his Linux 101 series, with an introduction on how to copy files and directories from the command line.

Are you new to Linux? If so, you’ve probably found the command line can be a bit intimidating. Don’t worry–it is for everyone at the beginning. That’s why I’m here to guide you through the process, and today I’m going to show you how to copy files and folders from the command line.

Why would you need to copy files and folders this way? You might find yourself on a GUI-less Linux server and need to make a backup of a configuration file or copy a data directory.

Trust me, at some point you’re going to need to be able to do this. Let’s find out how.

SEE: Linux: The 7 best distributions for new users (free PDF) (TechRepublic)

First we’ll copy a file. Let’s say you’re about to make changes to the Samba configuration file, smb.conf and you want a backup copy just in case something goes wrong. To copy that file, use the cp command to copy the source to the destination like so:

 cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.bak

You’ve probably already encountered your first problem. Because the smb.conf

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## New sodium oxide paves way for advanced sodium-ion batteries

Skoltech researchers and their collaborators from France, the US, Switzerland, and Australia were able to create and describe a mixed Na(Li1/3Mn2/3)O2 oxide that holds promise as a cathode material for sodium-ion batteries, which can one day complement or even replace lithium-ion batteries.

The paper was published in the journal Nature Materials.

Image credit: Pixabay (Free Pixabay license)

Lithium-ion batteries are powering the modern world of consumer devices and driving a revolution in electric transportation. But since lithium is rather rare and challenging to extract from an environmental standpoint, researchers and engineers have been looking for more sustainable and cost-effective alternatives for quite some time now.

One option is sodium-ion technology, as sodium is much more abundant than lithium. Na-ion batteries, however, still struggle to provide high energy density and cycling stability. Thus, the search for an optimal design for Na-based cathodes is underway in laboratories across the world.

Skoltech Professor and Director of the Center for Energy Science and Technology Artem Abakumov and PhD student Anatolii Morozov were part of an international team that studied the compound Na(Li1/3Mn2/3)O2, patented by Renault. This compound showed promise as a cathode

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## Developers: How observability complements the future of monitoring

Commentary: Those who say observability killed monitoring aren’t paying attention. Here’s why.

You can be forgiven if you thought monitoring was passé. Nagios, for example, is probably the best known of the open source monitoring tools, but interest in it has steadily declined for over a decade. Meanwhile, observability tools like OpenTelemetry are hot, though “observability” is arguably a cool new term for much the same metrics, logs, and traces that we’ve been analyzing long before the term was coined.

Indeed, as Lightstep CEO Ben Sigelman has argued, observability isn’t going to replace monitoring “because it shouldn’t.” Observability is all about augmenting monitoring, not replacing it. Here’s why.

SEE: Editorial calendar: IT policies, checklists, toolkits, and research for download (TechRepublic Premium)

## Thinking differently about monitoring

### Must-read developer content

I suggested above that observability is really just a fancy way of saying “logs, traces, and metrics,” but that’s overly simplistic. Ultimately, according to Sigelman, observability is about telemetry and storage. Telemetry increasingly is synonymous with OpenTelemetry, the CNCF-hosted open source project. And storage? It’s more than a time series database or a database for storing logs, traces, and transactions. You need both.

The third

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## I Can See it in Your Eyes: Gaze towards a Robot as an Implicit Cue of Uncanniness and Task Performance in Long-term Interactions

Long-term human-robot interactions have been widely researched; however, there is a lack of methods to evaluate people’s perception and engagement with those systems. Questionnaires and interviews may be biased and decrease human involvement. Hence, a recent study investigates the possibility of using gaze patterns as a suitable metric.

Image credit: Makia Minich via Wikimedia (CC BY-SA 3.0)

During the experiment, participants wearing eye-tracking glasses got involved in an interactive session with a robot and self-reported their perception and engagement with it. The results show that mutual gaze towards a robot was a negative predictor of uncanniness during a social chat.

During joint tasks, which involved tangible artifacts, the best predictor of involvement was the gaze focused on the object of shared attention and not on the robot itself. These findings show that the gaze can be used as an indicator of people’s perception of robots.

Over the past years, extensive research has been dedicated to developing robust platforms and data-driven dialogue models to support long-term human-robot interactions. However, little is known about how people’s perception of robots and engagement with them develop over time and how these can be accurately assessed through implicit and continuous measurement techniques. In this paper,

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## CES 2021: All of the business tech news you need to know

Don’t miss TechRepublic’s CES 2021 coverage, which includes product announcements from Lenovo, Samsung, LG, and Dell about PCs, laptops, software, robots, monitors, and TVs.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, CES 2021 is all-digital for the first time ever. The event runs from Monday, January 11 to Thursday, January 14. CES has always been one of the leading tech events each year and, despite being an online-only event in 2021, thousands of products are expected to be announced.

There are six top trends to watch for at CES 2021, according to TechRepublic’s Editor-in-Chief Bill Detwiler, Associate Managing Editor Teena Maddox, and UK Editor-in-Chief Steve Ranger. Several visionary tech and industry leaders are expected to deliver keynote speeches at CES 2021 including Verizon Chairman and CEO Hans Vestberg, General Motors Chairman and CEO Mary Barra, Best Buy CEO Corie Barry, Mastercard CEO Michael Miebach, and more.

TechRepublic will be reporting on all of the CES 2021 tech news that business pros need to know. Keep checking this article for our latest CES 2021 coverage.

SEE: CES 2021: The big trends for business (ZDNet/TechRepublic special feature)

## Must-see CES 2021 photo galleries

Photos: Best sleep solutions at CES 2021
Entrepreneurs

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## ‘Bespoke’ analysis of DNA packaging sheds light on the intricacies of the fundamental process

Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues have optimized data analysis for a common method of studying the 3D structure of DNA in single cells of a Drosophila fly. The new approach allows the scientists to peek with greater confidence into individual cells to study the unique ways DNA is packaged there and get closer to understanding this crucial process’s underlying mechanisms.

The paper was published in the journal Nature Communications.

Image credit: Pixabay (Free Pixabay license)

The reason a roughly two-meter-long strand of DNA fits into the tiny nucleus of a human cell is that chromatin, a complex of DNA and proteins, packages it into compact but very complex structures. To study the way DNA is packaged, researchers worldwide have developed so-called chromosome conformation capture (3C) techniques, the most efficient of which is called Hi-C. Hi-C essentially catalogs all interacting fragments of a DNA strand via high-throughput sequencing.

Therein lies the problem, however: to work, Hi-C needs tens of micrograms of DNA, which means millions of cells, each with its unique spatial organization of chromatin, have to be averaged to get a snapshot that will inevitably miss some peculiarities of DNA packaging in single cells. Much like the ‘average

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